Senecavirus A - SVA (Seneca Valley Virus)

microscopic image of Seneca Valley virusSenecavirus A - SVA (Seneca Valley Virus) belongs to Genus Senecavirus within the Picornaviridae family. The clinical signs are characterized by vesicles and coalescing erosions on the snouts and coronary bands in infected sows, nursery, and finishing pigs (Figure 1). Acute mortality in neonatal piglets has also been sporadically reported.  The picture to the right is a microvesicle in the epidermis (skin) of a pig infected with SVA. SVA mRNA is stained by the red dots.  (Provided by F. Vannucci)

Previous attempts to fulfill Koch postulates with SVA have been unsuccessful, and data is lacking on modes of transmission, incubation period, and duration of viral shedding. Viremia associated with SVA is unknown, but the lab has retrieved whole genome sequences of SVA from sow serum. The majority of SVA sequences available from GenBank consist of the VP1 gene.

The Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MNVDL) has identified SVA by real time PCR from snouts, hooves, lymph nodes, and serum from affected sows that tested negative for FMDV, VSV, SVDV, and VESV. In addition, the virus has been detected in several tissues including brain, liver, spleen, lung, intestine, and heart from acutely dead piglets born from clinically infected sows. 

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